Germline ATM Mutation and Somatic PIK3CA and BCOR Mutations Found in an Infant With Aggressive Orbital Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma

PUBLICATIONS

August 4, 2021

American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports, Tempus-acknowledged —

Purpose

To report a case of aggressive infantile orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma harboring germline ATM mutation and 2 somatic mutations as revealed by next-generation sequencing and the potential application for personalized therapy.

Observations

A 7-month-old male developed a rapidly progressive left proptosis over 6 weeks due to a large medial orbital mass. Biopsy revealed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. After the first cycle of chemotherapy, re-imaging showed interval tumor enlargement with intracranial extension. Craniotomy, combined with orbital exenteration, was performed. Tumor specimens and blood samples were sent for 596 gene DNA sequencing panels with RNA-sequencing focused on actionable mutations as well as gene fusion detection. Sequencing revealed 3 clinically relevant mutations: a germline ATM loss-of-function (LOF) mutation, a somatic PIK3CA gain-of-function mutation, and a somatic BCOR LOF mutation. No chromosomal translocation was detected. Workup for metastasis was positive for bone marrow involvement. Despite standard high-dose adjuvant chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy, the patient died 10 months later with metastatic diseases.

Conclusions and importance

This case highlights an aggressive form of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in an infantile orbit. The presence of germline mutation may explain the increased chemo-resistance and adverse prognosis, and may be used as the target for genomic-directed therapy.

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Authors: Pimkwan Jaru-ampornpan, Chottiwat Tansirisithikul, Manachaya Prukajorn, Somponnat Sampattavanich, and Manop Pithukpakorn