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12/28/2023

Comparative Genomic Analysis of PIK3R1-Mutated and Wild-Type Breast Cancers

Breast Cancer Research and Treatment Manuscript
Authors Melody A. Cobleigh, Kayla Viets Layng, Elizabeth Mauer, Brett Mahon, Adam J. Hockenberry, and Abde M. Abukhdeir

Purpose

The PIK3R1 gene encodes the regulatory subunit—p85a—of the PI3K signaling complex. Prior studies have found that pathogenic somatic alterations in PIK3R1 are enriched in human breast cancers but the genomic landscape of breast cancer patients harboring PIK3R1 mutations has not been extensively characterized.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed 6,009 patient records that underwent next-generation sequencing (NGS) using the Tempus xT solid tumor assay. All patients had breast cancer with known HER2 (+/-) and hormone receptor (HR; +/-) status and were classified according to the presence of PIK3R1 mutations including short variants and copy number alterations.

Results

The frequency of PIK3R1 mutations varied according to subtype: 6% in triple negative (TNBC, 89/1,475), 2% in HER2-/HR+ (80/3,893) and 2.3% in HER2+ (15/641) (p < 0.001). Co-mutations in PTENTP53 and NF1 were significantly enriched, co-mutations in PIK3CA were significantly less prevalent, and tumor mutational burden was significantly higher in PIK3R1-mutated HER2- samples relative to PIK3R1 wild-type. At the transcriptional-level, PIK3R1 RNA expression in HER2- disease was significantly higher in PIK3R1-mutated (excluding copy number loss) samples, regardless of subtype.

Conclusion

This is the largest investigation of the PIK3R1 mutational landscape in breast cancer patients (n = 6,009). PIK3R1 mutations were more common in triple-negative breast cancer (~ 6%) than in HER2 + or HER2-/HR + disease (approximately 2%). While alterations in the PI3K/AKT pathway are often actionable in HER2-/HR + breast cancer, our study suggests that PIK3R1 could be an important target in TNBC as well.

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