Longitudinal and Multi-Tissue Molecular Diagnostics Track Somatic BRCA2 Reversion Mutations That Correct the Open Reading Frame of Germline Alteration Upon Clinical Relapse

npj Genomic Medicine Manuscript
Authors Shelly Sorrells, Kelly E. McKinnon, Ashleigh McBratney, and Christopher Sumey

BRCA-mutant cancers often develop therapeutic resistance through several mechanisms. Here, we report a case of pathogenic germline BRCA2-driven breast cancer monitored for disease progression and acquired resistance using longitudinal multi-tissue genomic testing. Briefly, genomic testing was performed throughout the course of disease on tumor tissue from multiple sites, circulating tumor DNA from blood plasma, and matched normal tissue. Genomic analyses identified actionable variants for targeted therapies, as well as emerging resistance mutations over time. Two unique BRCA2 somatic alterations (p.N255fs and p.D252fs) were identified upon resistance to PARP inhibitor and platinum treatment, respectively. Both alterations restored the open reading frame of the original germline alteration, likely accounting for acquired resistance. This case exemplifies the evolution of multiple subclonal BRCA reversion alterations over time and demonstrates the value of longitudinal multi-tissue genomic testing for monitoring disease progression, predicting measures of response, and evaluating treatment outcomes in oncology patients.