Longitudinal Shifts of Solid Tumor and Liquid Biopsy Sequencing Concordance in Metastatic Breast Cancer

JCO Precision Oncology, Tempus-authored Manuscript
Authors Minetta C. Liu, Matthew MacKay, Matthew Kase, Aneta Piwowarczyk, Christine Lo, Jeff Schaeffer, Justin D. Finkle, Christopher E. Mason, Nike Beaubier, Kimberly L. Blackwell, and Ben Ho Park

Tissue-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) in metastatic breast cancer (mBC) is limited by the inability to noninvasively track tumor evolution. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) NGS has made sequential testing feasible; however, the relationship between cfDNA and tissue-based testing in mBC is not well understood. Here, we evaluate concordance between tissue and cfDNA NGS relative to cfDNA sampling frequency in a large, clinically annotated mBC data set.

Tempus LENS was used to analyze deidentified records of mBC cases with Tempus xT (tissue) and xF (cfDNA) sequencing results. Then, various metrics of concordance were assessed within overlapping probe regions of the tissue and cfDNA assays (104 genes), focusing on pathogenic variants. Variant allele frequencies of discordant and concordant pathogenic variants were also compared. Analyses were stratified by mBC subtype and time between tests.

Records from 300 paired tissue and liquid biopsies were analyzed. Median time between tissue and blood collection was 78.5 days (standard deviation = 642.99). The median number of pathogenic variants/patient was one for cfDNA and two for tissue. Across the cohort, 77.8% of pathogenic tissue variants were found in cfDNA and 75.7% of pathogenic cfDNA variants were found in tissue when tests were ≤ 7 days apart, which decreased to 50.3% and 51.8%, respectively, for > 365 days. Furthermore, the median patient-level variant concordance was 67% when tests were ≤7 days apart and 30%-37% when > 30 days. The median variant allele frequencies of discordant variants were generally lower than those of concordant variants within the same time frame.

We observed high concordances between tissue and cfDNA results that generally decreased with longer durations between tests. Thus, cfDNA NGS reliably measures tissue genomics and is likely beneficial for longitudinal monitoring of molecular changes in mBC.