09/17/2022

Purity Independent Subtyping of Tumor (PurIST): Real-World Data Validation of a Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) Gene Expression Classifier and Its Prognostic Implications

AACR Pancreatic Cancer Special Session 2022, Tempus-authored PRESENTATION
Authors Stephane Wenric, James M. Davison, Yun E. Wang, Gregory M. Mayhew, Kirk Beebe, Hyunseok P. Kang, Michael V. Milburn, Vincent Chung, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Charles M. Perou

Background:
PDAC is a highly morbid disease with no validated biomarkers for first-line (1L) treatment selection. The PurIST single-sample molecular subtyping gene signature, initially described by Rashid et al. (Clin. Cancer Res., 2020), classifies PDAC tumors as basal or classical. Prior work
showed that these subtypes are associated with prognosis and that basal subtype patients have significantly lower objective response rate to FOLFIRINOX (FFX) compared to classical subtype patients. This suggests potential implications for treatment with FFX versus gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel (GnP). Here, we retrospectively demonstrate the clinical validity of PurIST implemented as a laboratory developed test (LDT) on the Tempus Labs sequencing platform using a real-world dataset of advanced PDAC patients.

Methods:
De-identified PDAC patients were selected from the Tempus Oncology Data Ecosystem under an IRB-approved protocol according to the following inclusion criteria: no systemic treatment, surgically unresectable/metastatic, available RNA-sequencing data from primary or metastatic tissue, and FFX or GnP as 1L systemic therapy with available outcomes. Sequencing was performed by the CAP/CLIA validated Tempus xT assay. The PurIST model was applied to normalized RNA-sequence abundance files to compute a basal or classical subtype label. Predefined statistical analysis parameters included 12-month survival rate and median overall survival (OS) in FFX treated patients. OS was compared using Kaplan-Meier estimates, hazard ratios, and log-rank statistical tests.

Results:
258 PDAC patients (64.9 +/- 9.9 yrs, 42% female), were identified for analysis with median OS of 11.7 months (95% CI: 10.6-13.7) and 12-month censorship rate of 12.8%. 151 patients were treated with FFX and 107 with GnP. 42 patients (28%) receiving FFX and 31 patients (29%)
receiving GnP were classified as basal. Among FFX treated patients, median OS was 14.4 months (95% CI: 12.5-16.9) in classical patients vs. 9.4 months (95% CI: 8.3-14.5) in basal patients (HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.2-2.6, p=0.006). The 12-month survival rate was significantly lower in basal patients receiving FFX vs. classical patients (33.3% vs. 59.4%, p=0.011). In basal patients, no difference in OS was observed between FFX and GnP groups (p=0.6). Classical patients receiving FFX had a 14.4 months median OS vs. 10.8 months for patients receiving GnP (p=0.046).

Conclusions:
In this real-world cohort, we validate the association between PurIST subtypes and PDAC patient survival when administered FFX or GnP. Among FFX-treated patients, classical patients had significantly better outcomes compared to basal patients. Moreover, classical patients appeared to have improved outcomes with FFX vs. GnP. These findings represent underlying biological PDAC differences and demonstrate the clinical validity of PurIST as a prognostic marker in PDAC patients when performed as an LDT on the Tempus xT platform. Ongoing evaluation of PurIST performance will be continuously monitored through the Tempus Oncology Data ecosystem.

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