01/18/2022

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to Identify Relapsed Gastrointestinal (GI) Solid Tumor Patients With Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) for Future Logic-Gated CAR T Therapy to Reduce on Target off Tumor Toxicity

ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium 2022, Tempus-authored
Authors J. Randolph Randolph Hecht, Scott Kopetz, Sandip Pravin Patel, Theodore Welling, Maria Pia Morelli, Mitesh J. Borad, Julian R. Molina, Kedar Kirtane, Yi Lin, Michelle Fan-Port, Armen Mardiros, Karl Beutner, Ariane Lozac'hmeur, Denise Lau, Kirstin B. Liechty, Judy Vong, Eric Ng, David G. Maloney, William Y. Go, Diane M. Simeone

Background:
Metastatic colorectal (CRC), pancreatic (PANC), and gastroesophageal (GE) cancers are the leading causes of GI cancer–related mortality (5-yr survival rate, 14%, 3% and ̃5-6%, respectively). T-cell immunotherapy targeting GI-associated tumor antigens has been attempted, but efficacy has been constrained by on-target off-tumor toxicity, limiting the therapeutic window. The Tmod (TM) platform is an AND-NOT logic-gated CAR T modular system, versions of which have a CEA- or MSLN-targeting CAR activator and a separate HLA-A*02-targeting blocker receptor to protect normal cells. Tmod CAR T exploits HLA LOH, common in GI malignancies (10-33% in primary solid tumors [TCGA]) and can kill tumor cells without harming healthy cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the prevalence of HLA LOH across GI tumors is unknown in the real-world setting. We utilized the Tempus xT oncology NGS database of patients with multiple GI tumors. From a standard-of-care NGS assay, GI cancer patients can be readily identified for HLA LOH and future treatment with Tmod CAR T therapy.

Methods:
The occurrence of HLA LOH in GI tumors of 1439 patients was assessed using paired germline and somatic DNA sequencing using a research assay [6]. CRC, PANC and GE patients with ≥ stage 3 were then extracted, and rates of HLA LOH were identified (ie, whether loss occurred across high-frequency HLA-A alleles). In addition, mutations in KRAS and BRAF, as well as MSI status were stratified to determine any association with HLA-A LOH.

Results:
HLA-A LOH was detected in 830 (17.3%) of all solid tumor records, and a similar proportion when all GI cancer records were analyzed (17.0%). For GI subtypes, these values ranged from 13.5% to 23.1% (Table). No high-frequency HLA-A allele (A*01, A*02, A*03, A*11) was more likely to be lost. Clinical biomarkers (KRAS, BRAF and MSI status) were not associated with HLA-LOH.

Conclusions:
The frequency of HLA LOH among advanced solid tumor cancers in this dataset is 17.3%, with a range of 13.5-23% between CRC, PANC and GE. The HLA LOH frequency observed in these GI tumors is consistent with that in primary tumors from TCGA, which also used germline-matched and tumor samples. Clinical biomarkers were not associated with HLA LOH. Tempus NGS was able to identify HLA LOH, which can be used for Tmod CAR T therapy to an enhanced therapeutic window. Identification of these patients in BASECAMP-1 (NCT04981119) will enable novel Tmod CAR T therapy.

VIEW THE POSTER

VIEW THE PUBLICATION